Children must receive the three basic needs which are aducation (asah), love (asih) and care (asuh). One of the three basic needs, namely education, can be given by stimulation through play activities.Montesoti, as quoted by Huges FP, suggests that playing is the work of children resulting in preoccupation with adapting every play situation into a learning experience. Piaget, as quoted by Pulaki MAS, suggests that playing is necessary for the cognitive adaptation and contributing to development of children.
Development is the improvement of skills and intelligence of children parallel with the increasing of age. The development of children begins at prenatal, the learning process begins at postnatal, and every child in the age group 2 to 5 years old undergoes first rapid development phase. The rate of development occurs with the expected stage, and learning process occurs with the understandable stages, but the biggest variation exists in the individual in relation to the rate of development and their learning processes. There have been continuous development and learning that come from interactions with people, objects, and surrounding environment.
A child is the active participant in the developmental process in her or his learning activities. The most important of development task in children is in preschool age and early years of school age which consists of motor development based on use of the different muscular groups that were well coordianted.
Educative game instrument (EGI) is a playing device which can maximize the development of children, The device contains the element of education that its usage is in accordance with age and the development rate of children. Some EGI can stimulate the cognitive aspect of development through recognition of size, shape, and colour of the device.
My experimental study using pretest-posttest control group design was carried out on children aged 2 to 5 years old. Inclusion criteria: healthy, well-nourished children, no developmental delay (confirmed by Denver-II developmental screening test). Exclusion criteria: preterm birth children. Forty subjects were selected by means of simple rendom sampling; research data were taken with Cronbach's motor skills care. Conclusions: there is a significant difference in motor skills scores and motor skill dimensions of children who receive EGI stimulation compared to those who do not. (Paediatr Indones.2008;48:315-21).
Sensory motor stage take place from postnatal period until the age of two years old. In this period, babies shall build their own understanding on their sphere by coordinating sensory experiences with physical motor actions. they will study about environtment through the ways available for them. The sensory and motor experiences of children are very important to study.
Motor development is a development which includes controlling the physical movement through the activity of nervous centre, nervous system, and muscle doordination. Motor development based on using deifferent muscle mass in coordination is highly important in preschool period and in early years of school. Motor skill may not be developed through a maturing process but the skill itsself must be studied. A study in motor skill found that there are eight important conditions i.e. studying readiness, studying oopotunity, practicing opportunity, properly aid tool, counseling and motivation. Those are conditions that should be studied individually, while skill should be studied one by one. The studying process may take place by watching the aid tool and cooding the information about its performance to become a cognitive outcome. EGI is a playing device designed specifically for the purpose of education and known as manipulative device. The size, form, and colour are provided in certain design, therefore if children are doing in a wrong way he or she will immediately be aware of it and correct the mistake.
Barrow IM, who examined the effect of colours, found that childrean named colour drawing with significantly higher accuracy rates than black and white line drawing. Colour may have provided information that more closely resembled the actual object, thus making the image more concrete and easily recognized. Further, a preference for colour in attending tasks has repeatedly shown to correspond with both mental age and intelligence, especially in the preschool years when children prefer to attend tasks in colour that require forced-choice matching.
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